# ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

## Why star delta starter is preferred with induction motor?

Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor due to following reasons:
• Starting current is reduced 3-4 times of the direct current due to which voltage drops and hence it causes less losses.
• Star delta starter circuit comes in circuit first during starting of motor, which reduces voltage 3 times, that is why current also reduces up to 3 times and hence less motor burning is caused.
• In addition, starting torque is increased and it prevents the damage of motor winding.

## What is Holding current ?

When scr is conducting current in forward conduction state, scr will return to forward blocking state when the anode current or forward current falls below a low level called Holding current
Note: Latching current and Holding current are not same. Latching current is associated with the turn on process of the scr whereas holding current is associated with the turn off process. In general holding current will be slightly lesser than the latching current.

## Define the following: Average demand, Maximum demand, Demand factor, Load factor.

• Average Demand: the average power requirement during some specified period of time of considerable duration is called the average demand of installation.
• Maximum Demand: The maximum demand of an installation is defined as the greatest of all the demand, which have occurred during a given period. It is measured accordingly to specifications, over a prescribed time interval during a certain period.
• Demand Factor: It is defined as the ratio of actual maximum demand made by the load to the rating of the connected load.
• Load Factor: It is defined as the ratio of the average power to the maximum demand.

## Define the term Capacitance and Inductance?

• Capacitance: It is the amount of charge that is stored inside a capacitor at a given voltage.
• Inductance: It is defined as the property of a coil to resist any changes in electric current flowing through it. Mutual inductance happens when a secondary coil opposes current change in the primary coil.

## State Norton’s Theorem

The Norton’s theorem explains the fact that there are two terminals and they are as follows:
• One is terminal active network containing voltage sources
• Another is the resistance that is viewed from the output terminals. The output terminals are equivalent to the constant source of current and it allows giving the parallel resistance.
The Norton’s theorem also explains about the constant current that is equal to the current of the short circuit placed across the terminals. The parallel resistance of the network can be viewed from the open circuit terminals when all the voltage and current sources are removed and replaced by the internal resistance.

• ## State Maximum power transfer theorem

The Maximum power transfer theorem explains about the load that a resistance will extract from the network. This includes the maximum power from the network and in this case the load resistance is being is equal to the resistance of the network and it also allows the resistance to be equal to the resistance of the network. This resistance can be viewed by the output terminals and the energy sources can be removed by leaving the internal resistance behind.

## State the difference between generator and alternator

Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used.

## What is Latching current?

Gate signal is to be applied to the thyristor to trigger the thyristor ON in safe mode. When the thyristor starts conducting the forward current above the minimum value, called Latching current, the gate signal which is applied to trigger the device in no longer require to keep the scr in ON position.

## Mention what is the difference between generator and alternator?

Both generator and alternator work on the same principle they convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

• Generator: It converts induced emf (Electro Motive Force) into direct current, where it based on stationary magnetic field and revolving conductor which rolls on the armatures with slip rings and brushes riding against each other.
• Alternator: It has rotating magnetic and stationary armature for high voltage and stationary magnetic field and a rotating armature for low voltage

## Why AC systems are preferred over DC systems?

Due to following reasons, AC systems are preferred over DC systems:
a. It is easy to maintain and change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and distribution.
b. Plant cost for AC transmission (circuit breakers, transformers etc) is much lower than the equivalent DC transmission
c. From power stations, AC is produced so it is better to use AC then DC instead of converting it.
d. When a large fault occurs in a network, it is easier to interrupt in an AC system, as the sine wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt.

## Mention what are the different colors on wires indicates?

This is a must know question for any good Electrical Engineer

• Black wire: This wire is used for power supply in all circuits. Any circuits with this color is considered hot or live. It is never used for a neutral or ground wire.
• Red wire: This color wire is a secondary live wire in a 220 volt circuit and used in some types of interconnection. You can join the red wire to another red wire or to a black wire
• Blue and Yellow wire: These wires are also used to carry power but are not wiring the outlets for common plug-in electrical devices. They are used for the live wire pulled through the conduct. You will see yellow wire in the fan, structure lights, and switched outlets.
• White and Gray: This color wire is used as a neutral wire. It carries the current (unbalanced load) to the ground. You can join white and gray only to other white and gray wires
• Green: It is connected to the grounding terminal in an outlet box and run from the outlet box to the ground bus bar within an electric panel

## How can you relate power engineering with electrical engineering?

Power engineering is a sub division of electrical engineering. It deals with generation, transmission and distribution of energy in electrical form. Design of all power equipments also comes under power engineering. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid i.e. called on grid systems and they might work on off grid systems that are not connected to the system.

## Explain RLC circuit?

An RLC circuit carries an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R) and inductor (L) and a capacitor (C), connected in parallel or series. This circuit is called a second order circuit as any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a second order differential equation.

## What are the various kind of cables used for transmission?

Cables, which are used for transmitting power, can be categorized in three forms:
• Low-tension cables, which can transmit voltage upto 1000 volts.
• High-tension cables can transmit voltage upto 23000 volts.
• Super tension cables can transmit voltage 66 kV to 132 kV.

## Mention what are the types of semi-conductors?

There are two types of semi-conductors intrinsic and extrinsic. Again in extrinsic semi-conductors you will have N-type semiconductors and P-type semiconductors.

## Why back emf used for a dc motor? highlight its significance.

The induced emf developed when the rotating conductors of the armature between the poles of magnet, in a DC motor, cut the magnetic flux, opposes the current flowing through the conductor, when the armature rotates, is called back emf. Its value depends upon the speed of rotation of the armature conductors. In starting, the value of back emf is zero.

## Mention how NPN and PNP transistor works?

In a circuit when NPN is used,

• No current flowing from A to D = No flow from X to Z
• Current flowing from A to D = Current allowed to flow from X to Z

When PNP is used,

• No current flowing from A to D = Current is allowed to flow from X to Z
• Current flowing from A to D = No current flow from X to Z

## What is slip in an induction motor?

Slip can be defined as the difference between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol ‘S’.

## Explain the application of storage batteries.

Storage batteries are used for various purposes, some of the applications are mentioned below:

• For the operation of protective devices and for emergency lighting at generating stations and substations.
• For starting, ignition and lighting of automobiles, aircrafts etc.
• For lighting on steam and diesel railways trains.
• As a supply power source in telephone exchange, laboratories and broad casting stations.
• For emergency lighting at hospitals, banks, rural areas where electricity supplies are not possible.

## What is the power factor of an alternator at no load?

At no load Synchronous Impedance of the alternator is responsible for creating angle difference. So it should be zero lagging like inductor.

## What is the function of anti-pumping in circuit breaker?

When breaker is close at one time by close push button,the anti pumping contactor prevent re close the breaker by close push button after if it already close.

## What is stepper motor. what is its uses?

Stepper motor is the electrical machine which act upon input pulse applied to it. it is one type of synchronous motor which runs in steps in either direction instead of running in complete cycle.so, in automation parts it is used.

## Why we use 3-phase supply? Why are not 4 or something else?

3 phase power generating and delivering is more efficient than 2 phase which in turn is more efficient than 1 phase. Similarly, going up in the number of phases result in increased efficiency as well, i.e. 4 phase and 5 phase is more efficient than 3 phase. The increase of efficiency as the number of phases increase is attributed to that power delivery becomes more continuous as the number of phases increases and It affects the Installation cost of transmission of Transmission towers.

## Why are Delta-Star-Transformers used for Lighting Loads?

For lighting loads, neutral conductor is must and hence the secondary must be star winding. And this lighting load is always unbalanced in all three phases. To minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta winding in the primary. So delta/star transformer is used for lighting loads.

## There are a Transformer and an induction machine. Those two have the same supply. For which device the load current will be maximum? And why?

The motor has max load current compare to that of transformer because the motor consumes real power.. and the transformer is only producing the working flux and its not consuming.. hence the load current in the transformer is because of core loss so it is minimum.

## What is ferrantic effect?

Output voltage is greater than the input voltage or receiving end voltage is greater than the sending end voltage.

## What is the difference between MCB & MCCB, Where it can be used?

MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is thermal operated and use for short circuit protection in small current rating circuit. MCCB moulded case circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and magnetic operation for instant trip in short circuit condition.under voltage and under frequency may be inbuilt. Normally it is used where normal current is more than 100A.

## what is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator?

In simple, synchronous generator supply’s both active and reactive power but asynchronous generator(induction generator) supply’s only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.This type of generators is used in windmills.

## Where should the lighting arrestor be placed in distribution lines?

Near distribution transformers and out going feeders of 11kv and incomming feeder of 33kv and near power transformers in sub-stations.

## What is Automatic Voltage regulator(AVR)?

AVR is an abbreviation for Automatic Voltage Regulator.It is important part in Synchronous Generators, it controls the output voltage of generator by controlling its excitation current. Thus it can control the output Reactive Power of the Generator.

## What are the transformer losses?

TRANSFORMER LOSSES – Transformer losses have two sources-copper loss and magnetic loss. Copper losses are caused by the resistance of the wire (I2R). Magnetic losses are caused by eddy currents and hysteresis in the core. Copper loss is a constant after the coil has been wound and therefore a measurable loss. Hysteresis loss is constant for a particular voltage and current. Eddy-current loss, however, is different for each frequency passed through the transformer.

## What is the difference between delta-delta, delta-star transformer?

Delta-delta transformer is used at generating station or a receiving station for Change of Voltage (i,e) generally it is used where the Voltage high & Current is low.Delta-star is a distribution kind of transformer where from secondary star neutral is taken as a return path and this configuration is used for Step down voltage phenomena.

## Why temperature rise is conducted in bus bars and isolators?

Bus bars and isolators are rated for continuous power flow, that means they carry heavy currents which rises their temperature. so it is necessary to test this devices for temperature rise.

## Why are transformer ratings in kva?

Since the power factor of the transformer is dependent on load we only define VA rating and does not include power factor. In case of motors, power factor depends on construction and hence the rating of motors is in K Watts and include power factor.

## What is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator?

In simple, synchronous generator supply’s both active and reactive power but asynchronous generator(induction generator) supply’s only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.This type of generators are used in windmills.

## what is a stepper motor? What are its uses?

Stepper motor is the electrical machine which acts upon input pulse applied to it. it is one type of synchronous motor which runs in steps in either direction instead of running in a complete cycle. so, in automation parts, it is used.

## What is ACSR cable and where we use it?

ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel reinforced, this conductor is used in transmission & distribution.

## Explain advantages of storage batteries

Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below:
• Most efficient form of storing energy portably.
• Stored energy is available immediately because there is no lag of time for delivering the stored energy.
• Reliable source for supply of energy.
• The energy can be drawn at a fairly constant rate.

## Whats the one main difference between UPS & inverter ? And electrical engineering & electronics engineering ?

Uninterrupt power supply is mainly use for short time . means according to ups VA it gives backup. ups is also two types : on line and offline . online ups having high volt and amp for long time backup with with high dc voltage.but ups start with 12v dc with 7 amp. but inverter is startwith 12v,24,dc to 36v dc and 120amp to 180amp battery with long time backup.

## State Thevenin’s Theorem:

According to thevenin’s theorem, the current flowing through a load resistance
Connected across any two terminals of a linear active bilateral network is the ratio open circuit voltage (i.e. the voltage across the two terminals when RL is removed) and sum of load resistance and internal resistance of the network. It is given by Voc / (Ri + RL).

## Why computer humming sound occurred in HT transmission line?

This computer humming sound is coming due to ionization (breakdown of air into charged particles) of air around transmission conductor. This effect is called as Corona effect, and it is considered as power loss.

## State the methods of improving power factor?

Methods of improving power factor:
• By connecting static capacitors in parallel with the load operating at lagging power factor.
• A synchronous motor takes a leading current when over excited and therefore behaves like a capacitor.
• By using phase advancers to improve the power factor of induction motors. It provides exciting ampere turns to the rotor circuit of the motor. By providing more ampere-turns than required, the induction motor can be made to operate on leading power factor like an overexcited synchronous motor.

## Explain the terms real power, apparent power and reactive power for ac circuits and also the units used.

• Real Power: It is the product of voltage, current and power factor i.e. P = V I cos j and basic unit of real power is watt. i.e. Expressed as W or kW.
• Apparent power: It is the product of voltage and current. Apparent power = V I and basic unit of apparent power is volt- ampere. Expressed as VA or KVA.
• Reactive Power: It is the product of voltage, current and sine of angle between the voltage and current i.e. Reactive power = voltage X current X sinj or Reactive power = V I sin j and has no other unit but expressed in VAR or KVAR.

## What is rated speed?

At the time of motor taking normal current (rated current)the speed of the motor is called rated speed. It is a speed at which any system take small current and give maximum efficiency.

## Why Delta Star Transformers are used for Lighting Loads?

For lighting loads, neutral conductor is must and hence the secondary must be star winding. and this lighting load is always unbalanced in all three phases. To minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta winding in the primary. So delta / star transformer is used for lighting loads.

## How does Zener phenomenon differ from Avalanche breakdown?

The phenomenon when the depletion region expands and the potential barrier increases leading to a very high electric field across the junction, due to which suddenly the reverse current increases under a very high reverse voltage is called Zener effect. Zener-breakdown or Avalanche breakdown may occur independently or both of these may occur simultaneously. Diode junctions that breakdown below 5v are caused by Zener Effect. Junctions that experience breakdown above 5v are caused by avalanche-effect. The Zener-breakdown occurs in heavily doped junctions, which produce narrow depletion layers. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly doped junctions, which produce wide depletion layers.

## Compare JFET’s and MOSFET’s.

Comparison of JFET’s and MOSFET’s:
• JFET’s can only be operated in the depletion mode whereas MOSFET’s can be operated in either depletion or in enhancement mode. In a JFET, if the gate is forward-biased, excess-carrier injunction occurs and the gate-current is substantial.
• MOSFET’s have input impedance much higher than that of JFET’s. Thus is due to negligible small leakage current.
• JFET’s have characteristic curves more flat than that of MOSFET is indicating a higher drain resistance.
• When JFET is operated with a reverse-bias on the junction, the gate-current IG is larger than it would be in a comparable MOSFET.

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